Aggerholm, K. and Højbjerre, L. (2017) ‘Parkour as acrobatics: An existential phenomenological study of movement in parkour’, Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9(1), pp. 69–86. doi: 10.1080/2159676X.2016.1196387.
Bartlett, R. (2007) Introduction to sports biomechanics. 2nd edn. Oxon: Routledge.
Bauer, J. J., Fuchs, R. K., Smith, G. A. and Snow, C. M. (2001) ‘Quantifying force magnitude and loading rate from drop landings that induce osteogenesis’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 17(2), pp. 142–152.
Bisseling, R. W., Hof, A. L., Bredeweg, S. W., Zwerver, J. and Mulder, T. (2007) ‘Relationship between landing strategy and patellar tendinopathy in volleyball’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(7), pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.032565.
Blackburn, J. T. and Padua, D. A. (2008) ‘Influence of trunk flexion on hip and knee joint kinematics during a controlled drop landing’, Clinical Biomechanics, 23(3), pp. 313–319. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.10.003.
Blazevich, A. (2007) Sports biomechanics: The basics. London: A&C Black.
Butler, R. J., Crowell, H. P. and Davis, I. M. (2003) ‘Lower extremity stiffness: Implications for performance and injury’, Clinical Biomechanics, 18(6), pp. 511–517.
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2017) Get active questionnaire. Available at: (Accessed: 21 May 2019).
Cavanagh, P. R. and Lafortune, M. A. (1980) ‘Ground reaction forces in distance running’, Journal of Biomechanics, 13(5), pp. 397–406.
Cheung, R. T. and Ng, G. Y. (2008) ‘Influence of different footwear on force of landing during running’, Physical Therapy, 88(5), pp. 620–628.
Cook, J. L., Khan, K. M., Maffulli, N. and Purdam, C. (2000) ‘Overuse tendinosis, not tendinitis part 2: Applying the new approach to patellar tendinopathy’, The Physician and Sports Medicine, 28(6), pp. 31–46.
Cortes, N., Onate, J., Abrantes, J., Gagen, L., Dowling, E. and Van Lunen, B. (2007) ‘Effects of gender and foot-landing techniques on lower extremity kinematics during drop-jump landings’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23(4), pp. 289–299.
Croft, J. and Bertram, J. (2017) ‘Affordance boundaries are defined by dynamic capabilities of parkour athletes in dropping from various heights’, Frontiers in Psychology, 8, p. 1571. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01571.
Derrick, T. R. (2004) ‘The effects of knee contact angle on impact forces and accelerations’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), pp. 832–837.
Elvin, N. G., Elvin, A. A. and Arnoczky, S. P. (2007) ‘Correlation between ground reaction force and tibial acceleration in vertical jumping’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23(3), pp. 180–189. doi: 10.1123/jab.23.3.180.
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (2017) Men’s artistic gymnastics - 2017 code of points. Available at: (Accessed: 8 March 2019).
Fietzer, A., Chang, Y. and Kulig, K. (2012) ‘Dancers with patellar tendinopathy exhibit higher vertical and braking ground reaction forces during landing’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(11), pp. 1157–1163. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.695080.
Frost, D. M., Beach, T. A., Callaghan, J. P. and McGill, S. M. (2015) ‘The influence of load and speed on individuals’ movement behavior’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(9), pp. 2417–2425.
Galloway, M., Lalley, A. and Shearn, J. (2013) ‘The role of mechanical loading in tendon development, maintenance, injury, and repair’, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 95(17), pp. 1620–1628. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01004.
Gamer, M., Lemon, J., Fellows, I. and Singh, P. (2019) ‘Irr: Various coefficients of interrater reliability and agreement’.
Gerling, I. E., Pach, A. and Witfeld, J. (2013) The ultimate parkour & freerunning book. 2nd edn. Maidenhead: Meyer & Meyer Sport.
Gilchrist, P. and Wheaton, B. (2011) ‘Lifestyle sport, public policy and youth engagement: Examining the emergence of parkour’, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3(1), pp. 109–131.
Gottschall, J. S. and Kram, R. (2005) ‘Ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running’, Journal of Biomechanics, 38(3), pp. 445–452. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.04.023.
Grabowski, A. M. and Kram, R. (2008) ‘Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 24(3), pp. 288–297.
Gratton, C. and Jones, I. (2010) Research methods for sports studies. 2nd edn. Oxon: Routledge.
Grosprêtre, S., Gimenez, P. and Martin, A. (2018) ‘Neuromuscular and electromechanical properties of ultra-power athletes: The traceurs’, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 118(7), pp. 1361–1371. doi: 10.1007/s00421-018-3868-1.
Grosprêtre, S. and Lepers, R. (2016) ‘Performance characteristics of parkour practitioners: Who are the traceurs?’, European Journal of Sport Science, 16(5), pp. 526–535. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2015.1060263.
Gross, T. and Nelson, R. C. (1988) ‘The shock attenuation role of the ankle during landing from a vertical jump’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20(5), pp. 506–514.
Gutekunst, D. J., Frykman, P. N. and Seay, J. F. (2010) Over-striding during ‘fixed-cadence’ load carriage leads to increased ground reaction forces, pp. 18–21.
Hreljac, A. (2004) ‘Impact and overuse injuries in runners’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), pp. 845–849. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000126803.66636.dd.
Hunter, J. P., Marshall, R. N. and McNair, P. J. (2005) ‘Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 21(1), pp. 31–43.
Ingram, J., Fields, S., Yard, E. and Comstock, R. (2008) ‘Epidemiology of knee injuries among boys and girls in US high school athletics’, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(6), pp. 1116–1122. doi: 10.1177/0363546508314400.
Jensen, R. L. and Ebben, W. P. (2007) ‘Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, knee joint, and ground reaction forces’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), pp. 763–767.
Koh, M., Jennings, L., Elliott, B. and Lloyd, D. (2003) ‘A predicted optimal performance of the yurchenko layout vault in women’s artistic gymnastics’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 19(3), pp. 187–204.
Koo, T. and Li, M. (2016) ‘A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research’, Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), pp. 155–163. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012.
Kossow, A. and Ebben, W. (2018) ‘Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(5), pp. 1222–1229. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002096.
Kulig, K., Fietzer, A. L. and Popovich Jr, J. M. (2011) ‘Ground reaction forces and knee mechanics in the weight acceptance phase of a dance leap take-off and landing’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(2), pp. 125–131.
Kuntze, G., Sellers, W. I. and Mansfield, N. (2009) ‘Bilateral ground reaction forces and joint moments for lateral sidestepping and crossover stepping tasks’, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(1), pp. 1–8.
Lakens, D. (2013) ‘Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs’, Frontiers in Psychology, 4. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863.
Lian, Ø., Engebretsen, L. and Bahr, R. (2005) ‘Prevalence of jumper’s knee among elite athletes from different sports: A cross-sectional study’, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(4), pp. 561–567. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091385.
Linthorne, N. P. (2001) ‘Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform’, American Journal of Physics, 69(11), pp. 1198–1204. doi: 10.1119/1.1397460.
Linthorne, N. P., Guzman, M. S. and Bridgett, L. A. (2005) ‘Optimum take-off angle in the long jump’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), pp. 703–712.
Majewski, M., Susanne, H. and Klaus, S. (2006) ‘Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: A 10-year study’, The Knee, 13(3), pp. 184–188. doi: 10.1016/j.knee.2006.01.005.
Maldonado, G., Bitard, H., Watier, B. and Soueres, P. (2015) ‘Evidence of dynamic postural control performance in parkour landing’, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 18 Suppl 1, pp. 1994–1995. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2015.1069588.
Maldonado, G., Soueres, P. and Watier, B. (2018) ‘Strategies of parkour practitioners for executing soft precision landings’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(22), pp. 2551–2557.
McClay, I. S., Robinson, J. R., Andriacchi, T. P., Frederick, E. C., Gross, T., Martin, P., Valiant, G., Williams, K. R. and Cavanagh, P. R. (1994) ‘A profile of ground reaction forces in professional basketball’, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10(3), pp. 222–236.
McLellan, C. P., Lovell, D. I. and Gass, G. C. (2011) ‘The role of rate of force development on vertical jump performance’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), pp. 379–385.
McNitt-Gray, J. (2008) ‘Musculoskeletal loading during landing’, in Zatsiorsky, V. (ed.) Biomechanics in sport. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, pp. 523–549.
Milašinović, R., Popović, S., Matić, R., Gardašević, J. and Bjelica, D. (2016) ‘Body height and its estimation utilizing arm span measurements in male adolescents from southern region in montenegro’, Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14(2), pp. 21–23.
Mills, C., Pain, M. T. and Yeadon, M. R. (2009) ‘Reducing ground reaction forces in gymnastics landings may increase internal loading’, Journal of Biomechanics, 42(6), pp. 671–678.
Milner, C., Ferber, R., Pollard, C., Hamill, J. and Davis, I. (2006) ‘Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in female runners’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(2), pp. 323–328. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000183477.75808.92.
Moir, G., Button, C., Glaister, M. and Stone, M. H. (2004) ‘Influence of familiarization on the reliability of vertical jump and acceleration sprinting performance in physically active men’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(2), p. 276. doi: 10.1519/r-13093.1.
Myer, G., Ford, K., Di Stasi, S., Foss, K., Micheli, L. and Hewett, T. (2015) ‘High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: Is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(2), pp. 118–122. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092536.
Niu, W., Feng, T., Jiang, C. and Zhang, M. (2014) ‘Peak vertical ground reaction force during two-leg landing: A systematic review and mathematical modeling’, BioMed Research International, 2014, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1155/2014/126860.
Nordin, A. and Dufek, J. (2017) ‘Lower extremity variability changes with drop-landing height manipulations’, Research in Sports Medicine, 25(2), pp. 144–155. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2017.1282353.
O’Grady, A. (2012) ‘Tracing the city – parkour training, play and the practice of collaborative learning’, Theatre, Dance and Performance Training, 3(2), pp. 145–162. doi: 10.1080/19443927.2012.686450.
O’Loughlin, A. (2012) ‘A door for creativity–art and competition in parkour’, Theatre, Dance and Performance Training, 3(2), pp. 192–198.
Parkour UK (2017) Parkour/freerunning officially recognised as a sport! Available at: (Accessed: 2 March 2019).
Peers, K. H. and Lysens, R. J. (2005) ‘Patellar tendinopathy in athletes’, Sports Medicine, 35(1), pp. 71–87. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200535010-00006.
Penitente, G. and Sands, W. A. (2015) ‘Exploratory investigation of impact loads during the forward handspring vault’, Journal of Human Kinetics, 46(1), pp. 59–68.
Pinder, R. A., Davids, K., Renshaw, I. and Araújo, D. (2011) ‘Representative learning design and functionality of research and practice in sport’, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), pp. 146–155.
Prilutsky, B. (2008) ‘Eccentric muscle action in sport and exercise’, in Zatsiorsky, V. (ed.) Biomechanics in sport. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, pp. 56–86.
Puddle, D. L. and Maulder, P. S. (2013) ‘Ground reaction forces and loading rates associated with parkour and traditional drop landing techniques’, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12(1), pp. 122–129.
Saito, A., Okada, K., Sasaki, M. and Wakasa, M. (2020) ‘Influence of the trunk position on knee kinematics during the single-leg landing: Implications for injury prevention’, Sports Biomechanics, pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2019.1691642.
Saunders, N., Hanson, N., Koutakis, P., Chaudhari, A. and Devor, S. (2014) ‘Landing ground reaction forces in figure skaters and non-skaters’, Journal of Sports Science, 32(11), pp. 1042–1049. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2013.877593.
Seegmiller, J. and McCaw, S. (2003) ‘Ground reaction forces among gymnasts and recreational athletes in drop landings’, Journal of Athletic Training, 38(4), pp. 311–314.
Self, B. P. and Paine, D. (2001) ‘Ankle biomechanics during four landing techniques’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(8), pp. 1338–1344.
Sell, T. C., Ferris, C. M., Abt, J. P., Tsai, Y. S., Myers, J. B., Fu, F. H. and Lephart, S. M. (2007) ‘Predictors of proximal tibia anterior shear force during a vertical stop jump’, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 25(12), pp. 1589–1597.
Seynnes, O., Erskine, R., Maganaris, C., Longo, S., Simoneau, E., Grosset, J. and Narici, M. (2009) ‘Training-induced changes in structural and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon are related to muscle hypertrophy but not to strength gains’, Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(2), pp. 523–530. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00213.2009.
Sharp, R. S. (2008) ‘On the stability and control of the bicycle’, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 61(6), pp. 1–24.
Shin, C., Chaudhari, A. and Andriacchi, T. (2009) ‘The effect of isolated valgus moments on ACL strain during single-leg landing: A simulation study’, Journal of Biomechanics, 42(3), pp. 280–285. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.10.031.
Silvers, H. J. and Mandelbaum, B. R. (2011) ‘ACL injury prevention in the athlete’, Sports Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 27(1), pp. 18–26. doi: 10.1016/j.orthtr.2011.01.010.
Standing, R. J. and Maulder, P. S. (2015) ‘A comparison of the habitual landing strategies from differing drop heights of parkour practitioners (traceurs) and recreationally trained individuals’, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14(4), pp. 723–731.
Stanish, W. D., Rubinovich, R. M. and Curwin, S. (1986) ‘Eccentric exercise in chronic tendinitis’, Clinical Orthopaedics, 208, pp. 65–68.
Sterchele, D. and Ferrero Camoletto, R. (2017) ‘Governing bodies or managing freedom? Subcultural struggles, national sport systems and the glocalised institutionalisation of parkour’, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 9(1), pp. 89–105.
Stevens, K. J. and Dragoo, J. L. (2006) ‘Anterior cruciate ligament tears and associated injuries’, Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 17(5), pp. 347–362.
Tan, S. C. and Chan, O. (2008) ‘Achilles and patellar tendinopathy: Current understanding of pathophysiology and management’, Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(20-22), pp. 1608–1615.
Trowell, D., Phillips, E., Saunders, P. and Bonacci, J. (2019) ‘The relationship between performance and biomechanics in middle-distance runners’, Sports Biomechanics, pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2019.1630478.
Visnes, H., Aandahl, H. A. and Bahr, R. (2012) ‘Jumper’s knee paradox - jumping ability is a risk factor for developing jumper’s knee: A 5-year prospective study’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(8), pp. 503–507. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091385.
Visnes, H. and Bahr, R. (2013) ‘Training volume and body composition as risk factors for developing jumper’s knee among young elite volleyball players’, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(5), pp. 607–613. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01430.x.
Wallace, B., Kernozek, T., White, J., Kline, D., Wright, G., Peng, H.-T. and Huang, C.-F. (2010) ‘Quantification of vertical ground reaction forces of popular bilateral plyometric exercises’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), pp. 207–212.
Wanke, E., Thiel, N., Groneberg, D. and Fischer, A. (2013) ‘Parkour - art of movement and its injury risk’, Sportverletz Sportschaden, 27(3), pp. 169–176. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1350183.
Weir, J. P. (2005) ‘Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(1), pp. 231–240.
Witvrouw, E., Lysens, R., Bellemans, J., Cambier, D. and Vanderstraeten, G. (2000) ‘Intrinsic risk factors for the development of anterior knee pain in an athletic population: A two-year prospective study’, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(4), pp. 480–489.
Yeow, C. H., Lee, P. V. S. and Goh, J. C. H. (2011) ‘An investigation of lower extremity energy dissipation strategies during single-leg and double-leg landing based on sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics’, Human Movement Science, 30(3), pp. 624–635. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2010.11.010.
Yeow, C., Lee, P. and Goh, J. (2009) ‘Regression relationships of landing height with ground reaction forces, knee flexion angles, angular velocities and joint powers during double-leg landing’, The Knee, 16(5), pp. 381–386. doi: 10.1016/j.knee.2009.02.002.
Yeow, C., Lee, P. and Goh, J. (2010) ‘Sagittal knee joint kinematics and energetics in response to different landing heights and techniques’, The Knee, 17(2), pp. 127–131.
Yu, B., Lin, C.-F. and Garrett, W. E. (2006) ‘Lower extremity biomechanics during the landing of a stop-jump task’, Clinical Biomechanics, 21(3), pp. 297–305.
Zadpoor, A. A. and Nikooyan, A. A. (2011) ‘The relationship between lower-extremity stress fractures and the ground reaction force: A systematic review’, Clinical Biomechanics, 26(1), pp. 23–28.
Zwerver, J., Bredeweg, S. and Akker-Scheek, I. van den (2011) ‘Prevalence of jumper’s knee among nonelite athletes from different sports: A cross-sectional survey’, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(9), pp. 1984–1988. doi: 10.1177/0363546511413370.